Francois L’Olonnais — Source: The Library of Congress on Wikimedia Commons

The brutalities of 17th-century buccaneer François l’Ollonais are so cruel they are almost unbelievable. Indentured servitude brought him to the Caribbean at a young age. …


Map of Mexico 1845 — By Jaimiko on Wikimedia Commons

Before the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico’s landmass stretched well past its current northern border into what today is the American Southwest. Then, Mexico’s land included present-day California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and parts of Wyoming, Colorado, Nebraska, and Oklahoma.

As a result of the treaty, Mexico…


Panel from the Bayeux Tapestry — Wikimedia Commons

On October 14, 1066, William the Conqueror’s Norman forces won the bloody Battle of Hastings over King Harold II’s army, killing the King in the process. King Harold II was fresh off a victory over another challenger to the throne, Harald Hardrada of Norway, but William proved too strong.

During…


By Osiritkos on Wikimedia Commons

The title of this article is not a misprint; Queen Hatshepsut was the King of Egypt. The concept of Queen did not exist in Ancient Egypt. I refer to Hatshepsut as Queen in this article only to help the modern reader.

Queen Hatshepsut ruled one of the wealthiest kingdoms in…


Joséphine de Beauharnais by Andrea Appiani/Wikimedia Commons

Joséphine de Beauharnais went by Rose before she met Napoleon. Her first husband was executed by guillotine during the French Revolution. She had two children with her deceased husband. Napoleon, who was six years younger, could not resist her.

In one letter to Joséphine, highlighted by Kate Williams in Ambition…


“Jael, Deborah, and Barak” by Francisco Goya/Wikimedia Commons

Together they saved Israel over 3000 years ago as recorded in the Book of Judges, a book in the Old Testament (Hebrew Bible).

Why Deborah is a badass

There are 12 judges written about in the Book of Judges, and Deborah is the only female. Judges were leaders and prophets that were regarded as being…


Screenshot from December 30th, 2020

I accepted my News Break creator contract on December 15th and posted my first article the next day. I was excited about the opportunity but was unsure how difficult it would be to hit the metrics in my contract.

If I hit certain metrics as a writer on the platform…


Janwillemvanaalst/Wikimedia Commons/Altered by the author

The Eastern Front in 1916 echoed with artillery bombardments and troop offensives that resulted in massive casualties, especially for the Russians.

The ineptitude of leadership from the Imperial Russian Army made Russia’s vast superiority of numbers hardly an advantage. …


The Passage of the Delaware by Thomas Sully | Museum of Fine Arts on Wikimedia Commons

One of the most iconic surprise attacks of the American Revolutionary War also happened on Christmas night, December 25th, 1776. It was the daring crossing of the Delaware River. …


Photo by Sharon McCutcheon on Unsplash

“Little boy, did you do this?”

Those words still reverberate through my mind. Not just a question from a stranger but a conviction. I have hidden my shame for over twenty years—the shame of lying to a stranger.

It was a bright spring weekend morning. My mother pulled into a…

Samuel Sullivan

Creator of Frame of Reference | I find joy in learning and writing | I am a dog dad and a teacher by profession | My E-mail: ssulliv5291@gmail.com

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